According to Wolfork(1995:370)motivation is the internal state that arouses directs and maintains behaviour.Farant(1988) puts motivation as that which causes us to act.
Motivation is derived from the word motive ,for example motive to succeed ,satisfy the need ,motive to gain recognition ,motive for reward ,motive for self actualisation ,self concept or esteem.
Therefore motivation is an act of stimulating ,inspiring or the inner desire , drive to succeed.Motivation stimulates interests.
Motivation can be inside a child or influence externally.
Intrinsic Motivation is the best type of motivation is compiled to work because the pupil likes the subject matter and everything that has to do with teaching and learning.Such a child doesn't need any encouragement.The conducive environment just aroused the pupils interests and also has an abid interests in whatever takes place in the school environment.
Extrinsic Motivation is coerced compliance which is from the conducive environment.It is always as a result from outside influences and derived from external factors outside learning ,for instance,very good ,well done,material rewards,high marks,good comments like praising.
The Role of the Teacher in Motivation is listen to with interests to children and accept their ideas.Teacher who shows interests in the pupils's work ,using language which clearly understood by learners.
Varying the stimulus in the learning process:kinetic variation ,that's vary movements around the classroom .Focus behaviour ,by use of verbal and non verbal gestures to focus on their attention,for example verbal gestures,acknowledgements ,evaluative comments .
Non verbal gestures ,smiles,nod ,eye conduct,use of arm.Change in speech pattern that's raising and lowering your voice.Make variations in interaction style that's teacher/pupil or pupil/pupil or pupil/teacher interaction. And make pause.
Make various sizes of instructional media,or colours on the media or highlighting focal points on the media.Also vary your appearance through change of clothes daily and hair style.
Use Humour:Include jokes ,riddles and share cartoons with your learners in the teaching /learning process.
Use Concrete Instructional Media:Make provision of visual representation of information when something concerete is used ,children can touch it ,smell it,and also feel it ,for example newspaper cutting ,spacemen. Children like to look at instruction.
Use Enquiry Technique:Allow children to seek information.
Make children to actively participate in the Learning Process:Children's minds will wonder if they are not provided with something to do,hence they need something to do ,for example use of groupwork,games and role play.Children can be asked to write their answers down before responding.
Help Pupils to understand How the lesson activities relate to them now and in future:Make use of pupils' experiences.Use role models to demonstrates relevance of lesson activities or yourself as a role model.
Boost Children 's Confidence:Praise children.Some authorities say praise is like a drug ,too much of it might spoil the whole thing.Remember that all children might have an opportunity to succeed.
Use Feedback:Make the work in time and you give their work in time.Children want to know if they are progressing and marks should not be kept a secret.Marks in most cases motivate high achievers so slow learners need comments.Plan Work According to Children's Maturation:Too easy work or too difficult work will create problems.
Reasons for Lack of Motivation!:Children's work is too easy or too difficult.Other physical reasons children may be tired ,hungry,cold ,or feel hot conditions.
Maturation problems ,for instance mensurating .
Some problems are emotional problems ,unvaried teaching methods ,lack of feedback .The learners are get motivated by use of well clear voice ,fluently,eloquently spoken and understood by learners.
Role of Motivation:Motivation eliminates boredom.It sustains interest in prolonged mental efforts.It also encourages pupils to put more effort and builds learners' self-esteem.It also improves pupils attitudes towards work and make children to develop an interes in learning activities.
Principles of Motivations
Environment should be conducive to learning.Competition encourage motivation but too much competition discourage motivation.A highly motivated child learns more easily that the demotivated one.
Children work harder to tasks when they feel the results are important to them.Purpose of goals should be appropriate to the interest ,activities and maturity of the learners .
Motivation by rewards is more successful than punishment.Unearned rewards or praises that are given too much or competition discourages children.Good competition can increases motivation.
Children who like their teacher tend to be motivated.They tend to have higher level of motivation ,when they understand the standard of work that is expected of them.
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