No teacher can effectively teach with out schemes of work ,worse still the syllabus and lesson plans. Schemes of work is the candle light which guides the teacher to follow the education curriculum designed in the society to educate its own members.
The scheme is the breakdown of syllabus into teachable units for a specifically given time frame. For example week ,month or term. In other words it is the amount of materials the teacher prepares and intends to teach during a stipulated period of time.
The reflective teacher has to plan a scheme of work in advance for the coverage of subjects topics or concepts as drafted in the syllabus. It's basically the teacher's own personal plan of what he /she intends to teach why and how will teach over a period of time thus aims ,methods and activities.
Characteristics of good schemes of work should take into account the pupils' needs and interests which allow plenty of activities and involvement suited to their age ,experiences and stage of cognitive development.
Normally pupils in any class organisation usually without strict and precise sreen criteria, they possess different learning levels ,that's slow ,average and fast. Then the teacher must have a variety of learning activites to cater for these differences.
The schemes must be very clear in its various components ,that's the content ,instructional media ,methods , aims and also duration of lessons.
In most developing countries where internet and computer technology is still at its infancy usually schemes of work is done manually written by hand in a hard cover exercise book A4 size ,neatly well covered and submitted to the head of institution normally on weekly basis.On the cover before plastic cover a label of the name of the teacher and relevant personal details are included.
On the first page normally contains timetable ,information of the number of pupils ,thus in terms of their sex and age range. Page two is used to reflect the index of all subjects in the order they are schemed. Anywhere the teacher can device his/her own methods of attaching labels to the first page of each separate scheme.
Then the rest of the scheme book is divided into section for individual subjects . On the first page of each subject or discipline usually contains the index -name of the subject ,topics to be covered ,broad aims of the subject to be achieved.
A good aim contains words which express the philosophy of the subject ,that's it defines the unique of reference which the subject seeks to investigate for example in social science: To develop pupils ' ability to relate to others in the home ,school or community.
The format of the schemes of work like the different of schools or teachers is also the same .Each institution has its own agreed format which they all emphasise.
Generally scheme include the week ending date which in most countries ends on Friday or week's beginning of Monday. The topic to indicate the material to be covered during a particular week .Content derived from the topic and to cover a number of lessons per week.
Sources of matter should show the reference books ,journal ,newspapers,sites or resource persons from which information to be taught taken.
The media or instructional aids are objects ,charts ,pictures,wordcards or anything used by the teacher and pupils to facilitate learning process, to enhance the comprehension of the concepts in question. Please note to be specific in listing media ,value it and name only which is readily available.
Methods and activities enumerate the various steps to be followed when teaching .Lessons should flow sequentially . The activites of both the teacher and pupils to facilitate learning process should include discussion,story telling,dramatisation,demostrate ,practice ,questioning and answering and so on.
Evaluative comments are made at the end of the period for which each topic is schemed normally at the end of the week.The evaluation should reflect the lessons performance ,without bias list what has being achieved and not achieved or successes and failures or strength and weaknesses of the lessons within the same topic. The teacher should then gives possible extension or remedial work as solutions on how she/he intends to rectify the findings.
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