These are the old school of teaching which were teacher centred ,old fashioned ,routine teaching ,archaic.Examples are lecturing ,dictation ,drill ,teacher led discussion ,explanation.Lets discuss in detail the lecture method since all other traditional methods eminate from lecturing.
According to Staton(1960)defines lecture, as a process by which facts are transmitted from notebook of the teacher to the notebook of the student without passing the minds of either.Barker (1998)says a lecture is the earliest form of transmission of information from a scholar to the students.Oxford dictionary refers lecture as a discourse on subject.A lecture is one of the earliest and oldest instruction method and is still widely used in schools ,colleges ,universities,workshops ,symposia etc(Siyakwazi and Siyakwazi 1998)ascribe, Lecture as a very suitable for large section or classes over 500 students.
Kasambira (1993)points out that lecture method is greatly criticised by current progressive educators ,however its ability to survive the years has evidenced that the method processes some unique strength.
Staton adds ,the lecture method is a fine instructional device adapted to teaching almost any subject where the teacher dominates taking an active part while learners assume the passive receipient role.
Factors to Consider when Conducting the Lecture Method:
•The teacher should take into account the type of learners being taught.If the students' potential is limited ,the lecture method requires students to take notes and if students are not able to capture most of the important ideas held in the lecture.
•Students should be self motivated for lecture itself ,if you are a poor motivator consider the level of particular group of learners.Some students prefer the lecture method because it demands little direct participation and involvement.Less capable students tend to favour other methods which place more responsibility on them.
•The lesson must be short and precise to avoid boredom.Use of rhetoric questions ,illustrations ,voice variation ,audio visual aids is useful inorder to maintain pupil's interests and content should be summerised.
•During introduction give the a brief of what the lecture is going to take and lecture them what you have told them.Stick to a limited number of concepts and time.
•Make use of humour ,listen to oneself to see whether you are making sense or not.Maintain eye conduct with the class to reduce chances of talkin and other misbehaviours in the lesson.
•Ask evaluative questions whereby pupils judges decide and offer personal opinions and listen to them and consider their views.
Effective use of the Lecture Method:
The lecture method is effective as an introduction to a lesson with new topic not known to pupils .
The teacher must be very careful to take too long on lecture if used as an introduction since it is likely to be carried by own adoquancy and attempted to talk too much.
Variety can be introduced in the lesson by using learning media.Better teaching results are obtained through approach ,if judically blended with methods that call for active response from learners.
Lecture methods is constantly used by teachers particularly in high schools and learners of around 14 years and above old Advantages of Traditional Approach:It requires less preparation be cause of routine teaching.
The main tools are the voice ,lecture and the notes ,chalk and chalkboard,or projector ,because it is teacher centred ,that gives own view at own pace ,time ,so there is no time constraint and give lonely instructions.
They are use good for handling large groups ,also good when presenting factual material because the material is presented in direct and logical manner.
Disadvantages of Traditional Approach:There is little of learner participation .little adaptabiltiy and creativity.
The learners are fed of unfinished products ,just teacher's ideas and learners are treated as taburasa ,(empty vesels) or blanks into which facts has to be loaded.Paulo Fraire(1972) refers this as the banking system of education ,others cal it a teapot and cup,nutritive type of education.
The teacher's routines solists stereotype responses ,therefore it is boring and monotonous ,to pupils in primary schools .
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