Rough outline coding system of what will be written in certain chapter.Coding system in numbers is used.You have to decide on order of presentation .
Decide on the order or cards have actual review for actual use for related literature .
Decide on the studies to be emphasised and avoid repetition.
Combine and make interpretation of the literature studied.Avoid boring pattern of presentation for example start every paragraphy in the same way.Literature review must be written under clear headings and subheadings .It must reflect one's ability to treat issues systematically and sequentially .Emphasis is on relatedness of material to the research study.
Qualitative Educational Research looks at:
Learning processes,cognitive abilities,classroom teaching methods,student personality and motivation,school climate,administrative leadership,school teacher education,carriculum development ,school finance, programme for special groups of learners and subject matter instruction
Single Research Project In Education looks at: Rational of the single Research Project should come up with a classroom based investigation which would enable students to make use of what they have learnt in different curriculum components and apply this to a through study which has direct relevence to their class practice.
Nature of the Single Research study carried out should be restricted to the school were students are learning and where the teaching is done.
Objectives:Researchers should be able to give their own working definition of the concept of Educational Research .Outline different types of research methods and their appropriate application.
The qualitative and quantitative research.
Qualitative research is a social science research .It concerned with qualitative phenomena.
Quality is a set of standard.When we are interested in investigating the reason for human behaviour that is why people think or do certain things we often talk motivational research ,which is important type of qualitative research.
You can do this through the use of:
The description of events through the use of structures and semi-structured interviews.This response will depend on what you would have observed it is not pre-tested.
Casual observation and identification of groups of people.
Debates ,discussions and typing to elicit their own ideas (ethnography),conversations and participatory techniques
Uses of Qualitative Research aims at discovering the underlying motives and desires using indepth interviews for the purpose ,for example focus group discussions and narative research.
This method is used for attitudes or opinions.
Qualitative research is often important in behaviour science where the aim is to discover the underlying motives of human behaviour.
To focus research and develop relevent research hypothesis by exploring in greater depth of problem to be investigated and its possible causes.
It is also used to formulate appropriate questions .For more structured large scale surveys ,links it to quantitative research. To supplement information in community knowledge ,beliefs ,attitudes and behaviour which is already available but incomplete and unclear.
Quantitative Research is a research in which results or findings expressed in definite numerical quantities ,for instance pie charts,bar graphs,fractions and so on.
The Experimental Research is an investigation in which one or more variables manipulated by experimental under carefully control conditions.
An experiment that involves making a change in the value of one variable .The independent variable and observing effects of that change on another variable.
Main characteristics of experimental research is to
determine the extend of the cause effects relationship, examples in Education of independent variables:
Instructional materials textbooks,radios,audios,visuals and so on.The class size,time when subject is taught ,teachers claim that mathematics and science must be taught in the morning And the medium of instruction,method of instruction
Dependent variables pass rate depends on the class size, attendence ,attitudes ,curiosity ,interest and so on.
Experimental Design identify groups to deal with.
Assign subjects /samples for the experimental and the control group.
Assign subject into two groups of control group and that random numbers should be the same.
Introduce the treatment to the experimental group .
Carry out a post test to measure if there is only change comparing test scores from the experiment and the control.
One group Pre-test and post test Design. Administoring a pre-test measuring dependent variables and apply experimental treatment.
Randomized subject ,post test only control group design no pretest is used is this design.Subjects randomly assigned to the two different groups.
Randomization procedures remove extraneous variable ,for example age.After the subjects are assigned to groups only experimebntal group is exposed to the treatment .Members of both groups are then measured on depended variable.
Randomised matched subjects post test only control group design subjects are matched on one or more variables.
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