Art and craft is part of human community and culture. Curriculum stakeholders ,designers and implementers come up with Discipline Based Art Education a guiding framework for children to learn about their local socio-cultural art and craft and is effectively excuted by following its four basic disciplines which are Art history ,Art production ,Art aesthetics (Art appreciation) and Art criticism.
Art is a new visual object or sulpture ,picture drawn ,an idea in its visual form never formed before with emotions religious or other motives behind the skilled person who is known as an artist,whilst craft referred to those art being repeated time and time again.Those making crafts are called craftters.
Now lets discuss the four disciplines used in Discipline Based Art Education in details.
Art history is fundamental for children to look back to their art history and identify the value effects of their arts at that time and their influence in the modern society and its cultural dynamism. When childern view various artefacts made in the past and the artists behind the objects can now recognise the art and craft's contribution in the society in maintaining and transferring cultural values through its art and craft.
Nziramasanga (1999:364)advocates ,"...art teaches pupils to understand and feel confidant about their culture''. The study of art and craft history in primary school education can motivate pupils to develop a sense of confidence in a culture of art and craft where they can discover that through art and craft one can able to express feeling encode or decode messages .
Art history help children to exercise their artistic skills as practising to produce visual objects essential in specific performance and attitiudes towards art and craft as history is a motivating stimuli element in which children can imitate the popular artists as a role model to acquire essential techniques of art or craft as Dun(1995:12)"...from these copies they progressed to more independent work". Therefore is the study study of art history can help the artefacts to be understood both for aesthetic qualities as they poses for the signicant messeges and value drawings carrying across time and space to the next succeeding generation to other culture(Discipline Based Art Education module).
Children should learn about traditions and history of craftmanship.
Art production is mainly focused on the process of producing phase in art sessions or lessons. Riddle(1972:6) propounds that all extra skills ,seeing ,conclusion and selectively can be acquired along the way one practices imagination and search for new ways to express themselves. Hence children learn art skills simply by having adequate practical practice. Remember it take over 300 times trails to produce the perfect piece in art.
Creativity is the most component of true art ,in art production artists produce unique artefacts in various forms to create desired,attractive and beautiful effects.
Children should be promoted to created images and promoted and emphasised to express them visually in different artefacts . In addition attitudes to creativity and initiative is important aspect in art . As Bruce (1982:6)ascribes ,''A good art education ,however aims to give you more than just practical skills . It tries to get deeper to affect the way you see and think about things. For that it is better to think of it as visual ,rather than art education. Thus education is regarded as learning by repetition which is not relevant to studying art.
Children learn art production as they look closely to observe lines ,feel the texture ,how roughness or smoothness is the object so that they can able to produce an improved artistic visual perspective. For instance when drawing portraits they should observe facial lines . A potrait according to Maided (1994:18)"... is a drawing ,painting or photography of a person showing the face and part of the upper body.'' When drawing portraits as mentioned by Masekela (1994:4)that teachers should concentrate on imparting skills of observation . moreso observation develops the ability in children to see themselves as an artists.
The best method of Discipline Based Art Education is teaching by demostration as this enhance to observe some skills and techniques which involved in art. Kruger and Van Schalkwyk(1997:96)postulate that demostration help to convey information verbally and visually to guide pupils by means of direct actions.
Art criticism and art appreciations will be discussed in the next article.
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