30 October 2010

Effective Lesson for Primary Education

System Perrot in Cohen and Manon(1992)propose five presentation skills:
1.Set induction ,an introduction of setting the stage.
2.Clarity of explanations.
3.Use of examples.
4.Stimulus Variation is important in the lesson ,vary the way of lesson impression.
5.Closure or the conclusion of a lesson.
Barker (1994)says that effective lesson presentation has four major components
•Introduction 5 minutes
•Lesson development 10 minutes
•Application 10 minutes
•Conclusion 5minutes
If a lesson takes double 30 minutes only changes are on lesson development and application.
Introduction should be brief conscience and relevant into the start of the lesson .It should arouse learners' curiosity and link previous knowledge and new knowledge.Previous knowledge is a firm of reference or wish to build subject matter.Moreover introduction must be the link to the known to unknown or familiar to unfamiliar.It must be short and to the point.
Introduction is a motivational techniques which is an appertiser to the the learners .
Introduction can be song,story ,poem,drama etc.
Lesson Development planned in sequential stages which must be usually simple to complex or known to unknown ,as follows:
Stage one is acquiring the concept developing by demostrating ,explaining and use the media to make the learner understand the concept.
Stage two is application phase ,pupils participation and given opportunities for practice individually or in groups .
Stage three is class management aspects where the teacher put into practice ,classroom control ,for instances discipline,supervision ,identifying problems and rectifying them.
The teacher can use stimulus variations such as gestures,facial expressions and eye conduct as explaining the concepts of the lesson.
The use of gestures and facial expressions are an integral part of communication.It is one way of the teacher convey of meaning of language . Gestures should be clear and unambigious .
The teacher can able to position where everyone can see and ,also see the learners.
The movements by the teacher should be strategic to make learners move their eyes to give them mobility enough to maintain concentration.
The teacher should vary voice projection so as to avoid monotomy.The rapport must be used effectively by the teacher to show personal interest in pupils progress and cultivate a friendly working relationships.
Manners of the teacher should be well presentable through showing confidence,be relaxed ,self assured and purposeful.The teacher 's exposition is to be very informant,describing and explaining.
Methods and Activities are necessary that pupils learn through a variety of methods encompassing child-centred approaches ,for instances discovery learning ,enquiry,problem solving ,creative work and othe methods that develop an analytic mind.Learners should be developed to be seekers rather than receivers of knowledge so that they can cope with life later after learned something.
Activities should reflect desired learning outcomes ,for examples demostration for psycho motor skills ,drame and discussion for effective learning /experiments research for cognitive skills.Pupils must do activities which compose of story telling,reading of passages,class discussion,groupwork,reportback and written work
Application :Learners to be given the time to apply the new concepts or skills they introduced to them.It is necessary to apply to them in their groups so that they can assist each other before individual work.The written work or relevant activities should be related to concepts or skills introduced in the lesson only.
Conclusion: The teacher can ask pupils concerning the new concepts ,or make summary of the lesson by two or three learners or by the teacher. It can be a reportback by groups, or questioning and answering segment.
It is a consolidation phase which stresses on the important points ,recap of what has been learnt.
The way lessons can be concluded like introdution to lesson differ in many ways , it may be songs,poems etc.
The evaluation is done after the lesson ends.To evaluate is to appraise or determine the value of something against the set standards.
The analysis of the strengths and weaknesses of the lesson presentation.Evaluation should be analytical not narrative.It should be an assessment of teaching to produced a desired outcome in a series of recommendations and suggestions.Which provide a detailed critic appraisal of the planning ,preparation and presentation.
Use the following questions when evaluating:
•Did I teach the lesson or children?
•What caused children to learn or not?
•If objectives achieved or not why?
•What are my weak and strong points of my lesson?*
*On the strengths mentions things which make lesson a success.On weaknesses lists things you identified to make a lesson a failure.
What to evaluate ?:
•The teacher can make evaluation of how the lesson presented in terms of the personal capabilities,voice projection,language,impacts of the introduction and media
•The media used in the lesson how effective or its negative impacts to the learners as far as developing skills and grasping of concepts is concerned.
•The learner 's participation ,attitudes towards learning and their intellectual ability ,their discipline.How their organisation and tasks given, done effectively as individuals or in their groups.Are they affected by other feelings be it weather cold or hot,hunger ,thirsty etc.
NOTE:Learning should be a dynamic process that one continues to

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