The development of moral reasoning process by which children learn principles that enables them to judge whether particular behaviour patterns is wrong or right.
Jean Piaget's theory:
Stage 1: Moral realism / Morality of constraint / Heteronomous morality of 10 years old. Nothing is in itself wrong or right or good or bad.
Adults determine what is good or bad and right or wrong , then children must believe in rules to be obeyed as presented to them without questioning or altering. Furthermore the child judges action by looking the consequence of the act and doesn't care about the intention behind the act.
Stage:2 :Morality of cooperation /Autonomous morality /Morality pf reciprocity /Moral flexibility and Moral relativism. Rules are flexible and sudden to change. They(rules) are meant to protects the right of individual rather than forgiving allegence. Tension at this stage now come into consideration.
Kolhberg's theory (1958,1969,1981,1985)researched on people's responses to hypothetical dilema. The wife of a man (Heinz) is about to die ,but there is a drug than can easily save her life which is very expensible out of her husband's affordbility. The manufacturer of the drug is not willing to lower the price of the drug for Heinz to buy so that can save the life of his wife. Out of confused desparation Heinz breaks the laboratory of the essential drug manufacturer and steal the drug.
Level one ,Preconventional level ,Stage one is punishment obidience orientation .children assess what is right or wrong on the base of reward or punishment. Rules are obeyed inorder to avoid punishment. Therefore passive rules are absolute.
Stage two Instrumental relativism orientation. The child view wrong or right on the basis on what makes him/her happy. The child only does good to others so that he is treated well ,as well.
Level two Conventional level ,Stage three Good boy nice girl orientation where rules are obeyed because it makes them good or nice.
Children behave in a manner that doesn't subject to rejection to others. Children now are conformed to majority opinions.
Stage four :Law and order orientation where rules accepted because they are necessary for maintaing law and order. Personality by society depends on conformation of law and order regulations.
Level three :Post conventional level ,Stage five :Social contract orientation. Very small number of adults attain the level of moral development. Rules should protect the right of individual and should be mutual agreement. At this stage they believe in the society to set its own rules and also change to suit different situation.
Stage six -Universal -ethical principle orientation emphasise life as more important than all human laws. Human life is the most holy of which justice is beyond an established order.
Teacher's implication is to facilitate moral development of the children ,the teacher shouldn't waut until the pupils done wrong to discuss moral values. Avoid judge issues in isolation ,but consider the circumstances and promote good peer relationship.
In fact at first level be firm on rules and order to every child without favour. Level two give good comments to children and make classroom rules and laws together with them, agree on rewards or punishments on those who obey or breaks the rules respectively.
The final third level ,especially with older learners involve them in different situations in life and discussing them considering the significance of human life and abuse of human rights rather than laws and rules alone.
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