Any form of aggression or ill treatment directed to a minor is known as 'child abuse'. It is a non accidentally injury nor other physical harm which is afflicted to a child. The act of either omission or commission that endangers or impairs physical,personal,cognitive and health development.(Zimbabwe school psychology services)
Child abuse is in the form of physical,emotional,sexual,neglect,bullying ,prostitution and many other forms.
Children can be physically abused thus bodly harm which inflicted upon a child through beating ,hitting whipping and unauthorised corporal punishment.
The injuries range from cuts,burns ,braises or fractures.
The consequences might be death or permanant disability. Abuse may be also non accidential injury which include administration of drug ,for example medication or sedation.
Emotional abuse are aggressive behaviours that make a child feel unwanted or rejected. This can be done by with holding necessary warmth and affection.Or with holding of basic need like food or madical treatment when it is due to sustain her/his life. The threats may be teasing,ignoring,discounting or failing to appreciate the child's effort. The child may receive persistant criticism,beliking and humiliation which intilling a sense of uncontrollable fear through threats and shouting. The major signs are retardation on emotional development and verbal attitudes.
Sexual abuse is the most common form of child abuse which is inappropriate sexual behaviours. It occurs when a child is used by an adult or an older who is more knowledgeable on sexual pressures.
Statutory rape is where an adult get into sexual intercourse with a child with or without his/her consents when is under 16 years of age. The age range may differ from one state to the other. Rape is a sexual intercourse done with a child who is above the statutory age without his /her consent. Please note both boys and girls can be raped.
Incest is the performance of sexual intercourse action of the members of the same family ,for example father and his duaghter ,both siblings or mother and her son. And sodomy is sexual intercouse of both males .When it includes a boy and a man it is known as molestation.
Child sexual abuse may be attempted penetration or non penetration sexual activity ,for instance rubbing penis between the child 's thighs or genital organs. It may be sexual activities of fondling a child's sexual sensitive body parts ,thus genital,breasts,buttock and so on.
Oral sex with a child using genital and the mouth. A child may be involved in masturbation with an adult. Exploitative use of a child in prostitution or any other unlawful sexual practices like showing a child pornography.
Neglect is failure to provide a child with adequate nutrition,shelter,care and attention .An act of omission when the caregiver fails to give physical care and supervision. The child fails to be given the care for the developmental needs and this results in retardation in growth and cognitive development.
Bullying is a willful and conscious desire to hate or frightens other children. The child can be teased ,pushed or forcibly taking away of belongs from him/her .It is an act hostility and rejection.
Signs and symptoms of the abused child range from a behaviour of excessive crying or an increase in irristability ,tamper and tandrums.
The abused child may fears a particular person or object. The disrespctiful behavioural aggression towards others ,poor school performance ,bed wetting or soiling of pants. Oftenly some may act in a sexualised play or withdrawal from social contact.
Some physical signs are unexplained swelling ,bleeding ,pain ,irritation at anal area. Some may contract sexual transmitted infections(STIs) such as sores discharges ,frequent itching of genitals. Symptoms like unxplained headaches,stomarch pains or difficulties in completing the given work or task.
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