According to Ausubel and Robinson (1969:169)when integrating ,it is important to apply the principle of integrative reconciliation .This means putting out significant similarities and differences ,to reconcile real or apparent inconsistencies between successive ideas presented in sequential arrangement.This comes about when new knowledge is linked or merged with previously learnt knowledge -hence the need to link concepts in all subjects with what the child might have learnt in life experiences.
Barker(1988)emphasizes that teachers should know why they teach various subjects in the curriculum .He further adds that no one can teach effectively if he does not know why he is teaching the subject.Intergration can be done by teaching language across the curriculum.For example ,comprehension passages can be given where one is dealing with concepts in all subjects. Since language embodies concepts of varying nature ,links with other subjects are necessary.
Once the teacher has the wide view of teaching various subjects and appreciates the need to integrate these subjects ,since all subjects have the philosophical justifications similar to each other.This point was supported by Dearden (1970:90)who says ,teachers should view disciplines as different ways of being critical and diferent ways in which we may be curious ,creative and imaginative.This implies that we can see the world from different points of view ,but should appreciate other people's points of view.
The teacher should let the needs of the children be unifying factor in determining the balance of the curriculum .For example ,pupils enjoy music and games.These can be included in some lesson activities. Makinde in Williams ,further makes it clear that,remembering whether a factor is historical or geographical doesn't matter a bit of the children ,but is important to planners who design the curriculum and increase that knowledge.
Principles of Integration:
•Teachers should view the curriculum in terms of activity and experience and not knowledge and facts to be acquired and stored.
•The methods must include the learner physically,mentally and emotionally.Since learning situations can be linked to poetry,singing ,dancing and games which have aspects appealing to emotional aspects.
•Teachers should teach for concepts and skills development ,not for facts only.Therefore teaching should be for recognition of principles and not for the storage of information.
•Conceptual and skill development can be identified in all subjects using same topics.
•For effective promotion of learning we should aim for the coherent sets of relationships.This would make learners widen their horizons in view of the world and see implications of their learning.
•Teachers should allow the curiosity and free inquiry of pupils to be an integrating factor in their learning.The quality of curiosity should further be extended in all learning activities.
•It is imperative to use real life experiences,problems ,interests,events as basis for lessons.The knowledge should be based on child's experience and linked to the view of the world.Real life situations are not related only to one subject ,but to all disciplines in the curriculum.
•Learning should be the need for the total development of the child in all aspects of life .Children must be morally developed human being with feelings of love ,hate,fear and belonging.
•Bare in mind to mutual link between curriculum balance and the product of the school .If this curriculum is fully integrated ,the school leaver becomes an integrated being.
When integrating the teacher make both teaching and learning easier as the learners can learn and consciously relate concepts in different angles and spheres of community life.
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