03 October 2010


Learning is a permanent change in behaviour. It is concerned with cognitive, psychomotor and affective domains.
Behaviourists subscribed to the idea that in the study of psychology it is important to study the relationship between external observable input which they regard as the stimulus and the output stimulus response. Without concerning with such abstracts concepts such as mind, purpose ,free will and so on. The behaviourists connected to stimulus and response. In their view learning occurs on the basis of an association between stimulus and response and sweetens with some the form of rewards and also spied with punishments.
Ivoun Pavlov(1849-1936) a Russian physiologist produced the theory of learning through classical conditioning. The word 'classical' means the first theories of learning. And the word 'conditioning' refers to learning a behaviour modification.
Therefore in classical conditioning ,Pavlov basically discovered that learning is when there is some other previous neutral stimulus appeared at or just before the preventation of stimuli. In fact Pavlov collected saliva from a dog through a tube from its cheeks after being presented with food. In this way the dog salivated in the sight of food.
The theory is a reflex action which he observed the dog salivated in front of food container and even in the sound if experimented the footsteps of the food bearer.
Another neutral stimulus Pavlov experimented was a bell ringing to find out if the dog salivates when giving it food first by rang the bell ,but it didn't. He then involves the bell immediately followed by food and continuously ringing the bell first and then accompany the bell sound with the food, since the food salivates the dog. This was done in a number of times.
After the conditioning the bell sound without being accompanied by food salivates the dog.It is a reflex action. At first the bell is neutral ,but it ceases to be neutral after conditioning hence it is now a conditioning stimulus.
Stimulus generalisation ,Pavlov shifted to the sound of buzer instead of a bell till the dog salivated because the sound of the buzer sounded like a bell.
Differential conditioning according to Pavlov the dog presented with a horn sound like of a bell then it salivated.
Lets come back to the bell paired with food of course the dog salivates ,but changing to the horn paired with the bell only ,then horn alone without being paired ,the dog is now in position to distinguish the sound of the bell and the horn.
Extinction is the total disappearance of a particular behaviour due to lack of reinfocement. Food paired with bell the dog salivates,but after some time the bell alone the salivation declines until it didn't salivates any longer ,it is now clever and doesn't salivate to the bell sound again.
Educational implications of this classical conditioning learning theory ,pupils should associate school with cheerfulness,reinforcement or reward is very important.
The dog learned a new behaviour,the teacher should also encourage child ,for giving comments 'very good'.
Learning should importantly be entrusted ,to allow children to generalise what they learn in the four walls of their learning environment. Unless learners reinforced otherwise they will forge.

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