At school ,a withdrawn child can be identified through some of the following characteristics :shyness,fearfulness,secretiveness and apathy.A withdrawn child usually finds it difficult to form close friendships and coping with the frightening realities of life,for example ,walking in darkness .The child may turn to day dreaming and hallucinations as a way of escape. Gibson (1976:416)puts this,"Running away as a physical form of withdrawal reaction since a psychological flight from reality often characterises the withdrawn child".A withdrawn child in the classroom can sit back ,in activities like groupwork or oral lessons. The child has intraction problems with peers and will consequently retarded in all learning abilities.
Over anxiousness/Sense anxiety:Hyperactivity may be mistaken for severe anxiety because the symptoms are similar. The severe anxiety child can ba overactive ,restless and unable to concentrate on given work in class.
According to Gibson(1976:420) there are three types of anxiety:
(1)chronic anxiety ,the child appears tense and fearful for over a long period of time.The child is continually under strain and is usually fatigued.
(2)Anxiety attack ,the child becomes extremely agitated .This usually happens when the strain becomes acute.
(3)Panic reaction is the most extremely type of anxiety reaction .The extreme anxiety attack may lead to panic reaction.
Anxiety can retard a child's progress at school. In the classroom situation ,a child is presented with tasks which he is expected to do successfully .Some of the tasks might
be unfamiliar to the child.Take for instance being appointed to be a prefect,class monitor or a group leader. A child who comes to school with prior fears and uncertainties and meets these added stresses might degenerate into severe anxiety.These are some of possible home causes of retardation in children.However we should not close our horizons to quickly believe that only home circumstances are the exclusive causes of retardation in children. Lets say the influence of retardation is more wieder than in the home environment.Even at school some children can affected by school environment to be retarded.As a teachers it is very important to identify children retardation in all social spectrum ,after identified them ,we should give these children their essential help in their groups, if we have large numbers of pupils in this category.Teachers should ultimately dismiss this melicious belief of Tom and Dick that a retarded children are pupils who cannot be taught anything.
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