22 October 2010

Supervision of Teaching and Learning in the Educational System!

Supervision is the term that is both emotional and intellectual concept.The concept has radically changed in the past 50 years and is continuously changing in response to the developments in the modern educational scene.
Modern definitions have moved away from placing emphasis upon inspection and evaluation.Some writers point supervision as instructional behaviour system,set of activities a specifications developed inorder to influence the instructional process while others view supervision within a human relations framework that is considered essential inorder to permanently influence instructions
Alfonso Nevile defined instruction of supervision ,as a behaviour officially designed by an organisation that directly affects teacher's behaviour.In such a way that it facilitates pupils' learning and achievement of the goals in an organisation.
Traditional supervision consists largely of inspection of the teacher by means of visitation and conference carried on in a random manner ,with direction imposed on the teacher by authority and usually by one person.
Pragmatic supervision by contrast envolves the systematic study and analysis of the entire teaching/learning situation.Utilising a carefully planned programme that has been co-operatively drived from the situation and which is adapted to the needs of those envolved in it.
Special help is also given to the individual teacher who encounter problems that can not be solved by ordinary group processes.Supervision is a process which leads to the improvements of teaching and learning system.
Supervision of instruction is what educators do and maintain or change the school's operations in way that directly influence the teaching processes employed to promote children learning.Harris B in the book Supervisory behaviour in education notes that supervision is the main function of the school's operations .Its main task or specific job or set of techniques is to hold on both maintaining and improving the teaching /learning environment of the school.
Supervision achieves its ends through professionals like teachers.Teachers can build for the most part on their interrelationships with children though the end sort is growth and development of learners.It accomplished by person's supervisory responsibility through their work with individuals other than the learners themselves.
Because the promotion of teacher's growth will result in desired growth on the part of learners ,the entire focus of supervision must be on teaching and learning situation.
The educational supervisor must be a leader in developing and improving the school programmes by providing a stimulating environment and pleasant surroundings thus creating a conducive teaching and learning environment of security and well being of both the teacher and the learner.
The primary aim of supervison must be to recognise the inherent value of each person ,to the end that the full potential of all will be realised.Researchers in educational theory agree that supervision exist for the main purpose of improving method of instruction.Supervision should be the process to help teachers to improve both on instruction and the curriculum.
Moreover the supervision consists of all the activities leading to the improvement of method instruction ,activities related to moral development that is improving human relations ,inservice education and curriculum development.
Instructional supervisory behaviour is assummed to be an additional behaviour system formally provided by organisation for the purpose of interacting with the teaching behavioural system in such a way as to maintain change and improve the provision of self actualization in learning opportunities for learners.
Supervision refers to the school's function that improves instruction through direct assistance to teachers ,curriculum development,inservice training ,group development and action research in educational problems.
The types of supervision comprise of supervisory approach ,alternative approach ,non directive and directive supervision.

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