22 October 2010


Making lesson effective and giving meaningful facts to the learners in differents subjects matter and grasping of concepts ,need the use of various skills to capture the learner's minds to learn.
Mkandla (1995) says,a skill is a learned physical or mental act ,that enables learner to perform more competitively and successfully in a given task.The skilled person is the one who can apply theoretically or technically the knowledge of a given task.
Kyriacou (1991)asserts lesson presentation as,to learning experiences that you set up to achieve learning outcomes.This implies that lesson presentation is the stage of teaching episode with the latent to impart knowledge skills, attitudes and values.
Coombs(1995)says, effective lesson presentation is based on an effective lesson plan that helps you to keep on track with regards to what to do ,when to do it ,what materials to use ,and what activities are involved.
Kasambira(1993)compares ,a teacher to a pilot who can't take off on a flight without a chart or a compass.The idea supported by Coombs(1995)who believes ,every lesson is a journey into the unknown so there is need for a route map that keeps one on track.
Therefore a lesson plan is to be carefully designed and written out to show how the teacher will going to conduct the lesson and achieve well laid out objectives.
The Rationale of a Lesson Planning
It outlines the objectives ,selection of subject matter , procedure ,activities and planning od evaluation devices.
It helps the teacher to keeps on track ,stead progress and definite outcome of the teaching and learning process.
The teacher will become effective in discharging duty and preventing waste of time through systematic and ordery planned stages.The teacher never ends dry up and forge the vital points hence gives him/her confidence.
It serves as a check of progress in the absence of the teacher or the unplanned curriculum by setting framework to help the teacher to work directly along lines of the syllabus.
Lesson Topic:
Any lesson nomatter how short it is ,it should have a topic.The topic states the concepts or content to be presented to the class for example Food.
Topic limits the scope of the material to be presented ,that's what aspect of the broad topic you plan to cover,for instance Types of food eaten in Zimbabwe!
It determines the amount of time the teacher should spend on the topic,the media to be used and the obiectives of the lesson.Whether the lesson objectives are a lesson are cognitive dormain(mind) or psychomotor dormain (skills) or effective dormain(feelings).The backborne depends on the whole lesson.
Lesson Content is exactly what the lesson is all about.The material need to be covered within a specific period.It is delived from the lesson topic and is appropriate to the level of learners and is manageable within specified timeframe ,for example 30 minutes lesson.It is neither too much/complex or to little/simple.Remember topic and content are related.
Lesson Objectives must be stated in behavioural terms to change the knowledge ,attitudes ,habits etc.Stated objectives are more precise manner that's SMART:Specific Measurable Achieveable Result oriented Time framed.
Action words for the Cognitive Mind:
TO:recognise,describe,identify ,select,locate ,indicate ,state,name,write etc.
Objective of using "To define" and " To name"
To define food and name types of food.
To:translate,demostrate,illustrate,give examples,explain ,change,convert.
To:apply ,solve,dramatise,choose,use,organise ,operate etc.
Action words for the Psychomotor skills:
To:construct,manipulate ,fasten,mend,fix,draw,sharpen,make etc.
Action words for effective feelings:
Able to:ask,assist,discuss,relate,perform,help,give,display,et.
An effective lesson plan proposes the following:
♦well laid out learning expriences.
♦a distinct method or a combination of them.
♦well articulated means of motivation .
♦relevant media.
♦clear measurement assessment and evaluation procedures.*
*These three terms are related ,but they are difference.
NB:Assessment is an on going process ,for example asking questions ,writing examinations,tests etc.
The evaluation is done after the lesson ends.To evaluate is to appraise or determine the value of something against the set standards . The analysis of the strengths and weaknesses of the lesson presentation.Evaluation should be analytical not narrative.It should be an assessment of teaching to produced a desired outcome in a series of recommendations and suggestions.Which provide a detailed critic appraisal of the planning ,preparation and presentation.
Use the following questions when evaluating:
•Did I teach the lesson or children?
•What caused children to learn or not?
•If objectives achieved or not why?
•What wer my weak and strong points of my lesson?*
*On the strengths mentions things which make lesson a success.On weaknesses lists things you identified to make a lesson a failure.

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