The proponents of progressive teaching are John Dewey ,Rousseau,Karl Max.They all agree that knowledge is not static ,but that all reality or truth changes.Reality varies from one perceiver to another perceiver and knowledge is dynamic .Children should be allowed to learn freely.Dewey in Kochher(1985:128)says,"Force nothing on child ... give it free movement ...let it go from one interesting to another...we must wait for the desire of the child ,for the conscienciousness of the need." and the idea supported by Locke cited in Rusk(1977:92) anticipated the play in education when says, "children should not have anything like work or serious laid on them,neither their minds nor their bodies will bear it."Progressive method is a child centred ,dynamic modern ,fashionable ,novel in thing based in progressivism where the learner is responsible for own learning.
Students should therefore be allowed to learn freely and should be only assisted to discover new truth.Its main emphasis should be learning by doing.
Progressive methods include discovery or scientific inquiry,experimentation,field work ,project,use of tools like computers,discussion,demostration,groupwork,role play ,research,simulation ,drama,debate,devil advocate,,future wheel etc.
Lets take a look of some progressive methods in depth.
Discovery /Inquiry/Problem Solving Methods:These methods are brainchild of the great progressivist John Dewey who advocates that proper cognition comes through fusion of theory and practice known as "proxis".The most important is that the learner has to find knowledge using own ways,under
teacher's guidance of knowledge.
Pupils actively participate in their own learning through encountering real life situation in which they get first hand information.This enhance learner's
interaction and utilize pupil's curiosity.The teacher acts as mentor ,guides and creates an atmosphere, for active participation by make provisions of real life situations making or providing the equipments,apparatus and resources for pupils to learn with on their own.
Role Play:According to Farrant (1991:134)the application of role play stems from educational reformers like Froebel and Fredrick and Maria Montessorri.
Froebel advocates creativity in pupils whilst charts,maps ,pictures,illustrations ,actual objects ,sketches ,diagrams on the chalkboards which help to keep alive the interest of the classs relieve the monotomy of the lecture method.
The teacher should prepare the content carefully providing an outline for the class to follow .Blend the lecture approach with other learning activities such as group discussions.
Montessori was concerned with the teaching of retarded children.Bruce and Weal (1960:39)define role play as ,"the release of feeling in a therapeutic setting in a variation known as psychodrama.
The role play process provide a life sample of human behaviour that serves as a vehicle for pupils to explore their feelings and gaining sight into attitudes ,values and ways.
This helps pupils to resolve personal dilemma with the assistance of the social group.Pupils are exposed to skills of interacting together in analysing social situations especially interpersonal problems.
Pupils gain some measure of control as they compare their views with the views of others.
The stimulants of imagnation aroused as the experiment beyond the real values and levels of development with dangerous consequences.
It is competitive ,pitching friendly individually or groups against each other.
Lecture method is extremely effective way of introducing pupils into role playing .It is superior technique for demostrating models and clarifying matters that can confusing students.
A short lecture can effectively introduce and summarise the major concepts presented to an opportunity to collect related information and to assemble it into meaning and intellectually manageable framework.
Then pupils can be grouped into activities to play roles in reinforcing concepts and building skills.
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