04 October 2010


The transformation of man from animal kingdom and developed settlements which help him to have unique sounds and symbols later known as language.
The development of settlements to have a society is believed to be facilitated by capturing of fire as its appears in lightning and mountains. Then the fire used to mobilise people and used in almost all inventions which led to the formation of human kingdom.
According to Weiten (1989) a language is a collection of sounds , symbols and rules in combination to be used to create an infinity variety of messeges. Language is symbolic structured and generative. Hence it is a tool for communication used to express thoughts,feelings and emotions to differentiate man from animals.
Structures of language:phonemes>>>morphemes>>>words
Phonemes are the smallest units of sound in spoken language. Morphemes generate meaning combined phonemes into morphomes that are more meaningful than phonemes. Morphomes are combined into words ,words into phrases and phrases into sentences.
Syntax is a system of rules that specify how words can be combined into phrases and sentences.
Crying is the first form of language to signify hunger ,pain ,discomfort and so on. There is need to consider the reason why the baby is crying? Cooing by the end of the first month babies make other sounds besided crying. They produce cooing sound by putting tongue near the back of the mouth then rounding up their lips.
Babbling around six months infants can produce many sounds that correspond to phonemes used in many languages. Babbling includes all phonemes in a language and acts as fore runner to the words used later. Travors(1982)says babbling is universal implying that it is found in all languages. Chomsky claims that anybody can learn any language perfectly upto the age of 10 years old. Trevor(1982) puts any features unique to a language are acquired much later. Before six months a child's babbling is unsystematic and random but after six months it contains macro syllables which adults can identify. At this stage the same sounds are repeated indicating that the child is talking and babbling is a circular and reflex actions. Child(1997) asserts babbling as can be interpreted to indicate frustration ,request ,greeting ,surprises etc.
Speech at about a year infants can alter out single words ,for example 'mama' for mother and this are technically known as holophrase ,that's single words atterences that represent the meaning of several words.
Around the age of three the child has mastered a vocabulary of 300-900 words and engages in egocentric a social speech. About 50% is social speech which involves interaction between two or more people saving functions of socialisation ,entertainment ,requesting ,persuading ,instructing etc.
At 14 years old the child has vocabulary of about 1 500 words and the way he/she uses the first language approaches that of adults (Bowel et al 1982)
People learn their language the same way as they learn everything else ,through immitation and reinforcement . Nativist Chomsky argued that people born with Language Acquisition Device (LAD)which permits the interpretation of the language.

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